The Lesson Plan
Sabrina L. Manuel
College of Education, Grand Canyon University
EAD 520: Strengthening Curricular Programs to Promote Continuous School Improvement
Dr. Reida Roberts
January 12, 2022
The Lesson Plan
- Study and master the Tourism Life Cycle
- Identify ways tourist destinations can be safe and sustainable
Students will be learning about the environmental effects of tourism so they can explain it to the process effectively. They will be learning about the “Tourism Area Life Cycle” and define words related to the environment.
Students are successful when they can evaluate the environmental impact of tourism on a specific destination.
The relevant Common Core State Standards are too extensive to list here but are an important basis for this lesson. For details, please refer to the separate document “Correlations to the Common Core Standards” (available in the Course Planning Tools section of the course materials).
Understand how human actions modify the physical environment (National Geography Standards, 2nd ed. 2012, Standard 14)
Evaluate the nature and scope of the Hospitality & Tourism Career Cluster™ and the role of hospitality and tourism in society and the economy (Common Career Technical Core 2012, HT 2)
Use common travel and tourism terminology used to communicate within the industry (Common Career Technical Core 2012, HT-TT 6)
Identify the community elements necessary to maintain cooperative tourism development efforts (Common Career Technical Core 2012, HT-TT 9)
Means of Assessment
Written assessment of environmental impact of tourism on a specific destination (Student Resource 4.4)
Rubric: Environmental Impact Assessment (Teacher Resource 4.5)
· Whiteboard, blackboard, or flip chart
· Computers with Internet access and word processing software (one for each student)
· LCD projector
· Three, six, or nine sheets of chart paper (depending on class size)
Gallery Walk: Human Impact on the Environment
This springboard activity provides a visually compelling introduction to the environmental effects of typical tourism practices. It also prompts students to consider how hospitality and tourism businesses can help prevent further damage to the environment through responsible business decision making.
Before class, print out the photos from Teacher Resource 4.1, Photos: Three Environmental Impacts, and display them around the room. Alternatively, display them one at a time using an LCD projector.
Give students time to view each photo. Ask them to speculate on two prompts in their notebook:
· Describe what you see in this picture.
· Explain how tourists contribute to the problem you see in the picture.
When students have considered and commented on the photos, ask them to discuss what they wrote for each picture with a partner and then prepare to report out in a class discussion. Use the descriptions from Teacher Resource 4.1 to guide the discussion.
Inform students that the next activity will introduce them to a theory that helps explain the environmental effects they saw in the photos.
Interactive Lecture: Tourism Area Life Cycle
Having witnessed examples of environmental degradation caused by tourism, students learn the most widely known theory about why this occurs.
Display an enlarged copy of Teacher Resource 4.2, Chart: Tourism Area Life Cycle (separate JPEG file), or project this resource for the class to see. Also separate the illustrations in Teacher Resource 4.3, Illustrations: Life Cycle Stages, and place them in random order where students can see them.
Review Student Resource 4.1, Notes: Tourism Area Life Cycle, with the class. Explain that in addition to learning about this theory, they will also see how it connects to Plog’s model, which they have already learned about, and to the stages of environmental degradation that so many tourist destinations have caused.
Use the information in Teacher Resource 4.4, Interactive Lecture: Tourism Area Life Cycle, to summarize the main points about this theory as students participate. As you discuss each stage:
· Point to it on the chart.
· Choose a student volunteer to select the illustration representing that stage and explain his or her reasoning.
· Choose another volunteer to make an educated guess as to the type of traveler from Plog’s model who would be most attracted to that stage.
· Finally, have other student volunteers explain what they wrote in their chart and use that time to ensure classwide understanding.
Stop the lecture after you’ve discussed the Stagnation Stage. Tell students that you will continue with the other stages in the next class period, so they will need to keep their chart on hand in order to complete it.
If any time remains, tell students to work in pairs and make sure that their notes are complete thus far.
CLASS PERIOD 2
Interactive Lecture: Tourism Area Life Cycle (Continued)
Students review the concepts they learned in the lecture thus far and then learn about the final two stages.
Make sure that Teacher Resource 4.2, Chart: Tourism Area Life Cycle, and Teacher Resource 4.3, Illustrations: Life Cycle Stages, are displayed for students to see.
Refresh students’ memories of the characteristics of each stage of the Tourism Area Life Cycle that they have learned about thus far by calling on students to describe elements of each as you point to them on the chart. Advise students to refer to their own notes as necessary. When you reach the top right end of the chart, where the arrows point to Decline, Rejuvenation, and directions in between, ask:
· What do you think the characteristics of the Decline Stage might be? Explain.
· What do you think the characteristics of the Rejuvenation Stage might be? Explain.
· Why do you think there are arrows pointing to directions between these two stages?
Give students a few moments to consider before calling on volunteers to share their ideas. Next, tell students to finish filling in their chart as you resume the lecture.
As in the previous class period, paraphrase the final stages of the Tourism Area Life Cycle using Teacher Resource 4.4, Interactive Lecture: Tourism Area Life Cycle. Continue to ask students questions and invite discussion.
Ask students to look at Student Resource 4.2, Illustration: Decline or Rejuvenation? They should instantly recognize that it is a copy of the Exploration Stage. Divide students in half. Assign one half to the Decline Stage and one half to the Rejuvenation Stage.
Tell students to change the illustration to reflect the stage that they have been assigned. Assure them that this exercise has nothing to do with being a good artist but rather with being able to show what characteristics they think that stage would have, by using the same symbols as in the illustrations for the other stages of the cycle.
Once students have completed their illustration, tell them to find a student who illustrated the other stage to pair up with. Ask them to compare their work.
Ask a couple of student pair volunteers to display their illustrations and explain what characteristics they think Decline or Rejuvenation would exhibit. Use this time to clear up any misunderstandings about these final stages.
You may want to gauge student understanding by assessing Student Resource 4.1, Notes: Tourism Area Life Cycle, and Student Resource 4.2, Illustration: Decline or Rejuvenation?, on a credit/no-credit basis.
Inform students that they will learn about solutions to environmental damage from tourism in the next activity and that they will learn more about the role the Tourism Area Life Cycle plays in determining what action to take.
Reading and Composing with Key Words: Environmental Consulting
With a new understanding of how tourist destinations affect the environment, students read about the role of environmental consultants in mitigating or repairing damage caused by tourism.
Tell students that over the past couple of decades, as the damage caused by tourism has become more and more obvious, whole new professions have come into being in order to reverse this pattern. Environmental consultants are people who advise tourism businesses on how to use sustainable practices to keep their businesses profitable in an environmentally responsible way.
Review Student Resource 4.3, Reading: Environmental Consulting. Explain that this reading will connect the information they just learned about tourism life cycles with changing the way tourism operates. It will also help them to see how a consultant can play an important role during any stage of a destination’s life cycle.
Ask students to form pairs and read Student Resource 4.3. Tell them to circle words as they read that they think are important to remember or that they don’t understand.
Once students have finished reading, answer any questions regarding terminology. Then tell students to pick three of the words that they circled and to open to a blank page in their notebook.
Challenge students to write a sentence using all three of the words in a way that makes sense and uses the words appropriately. Students should each write their own sentence.
After a few minutes, have students swap sentences with a neighbor. Each pair should answer this prompt:
· Does this sentence use the three words from the text in a way that is meaningful and appropriate? Explain your reasoning.
As time allows, call on volunteers to share their own sentence with the class. Tell students that they will continue to use this new terminology in the upcoming activity.
You may want to gauge student understanding by assessing the sentences on a credit/no-credit basis.
CLASS PERIOD 3
Group Work: Environmental Impact Assessment
Students conduct research on an endangered destination around the world, evaluating how that site has been damaged by tourism and what can be done to address the problem.
This activity focuses on the following college and career skills:
· Utilizing time efficiently when managing complex tasks
· Demonstrating teamwork and collaboration
· Locating, evaluating, and applying information
Before class begins, consider whether there are any local endangered locations you wish to add to this assignment. If so, you will need to make sure sufficient research materials are available for those sites. You will also need to arrange for research materials and Internet access for this assignment (see Advance Preparation). Also, before class make a copy for each student of Teacher Resource 4.5, Rubric: Environmental Impact Assessment.
If your students have access to the technology to use apps in your classroom, instruct students to research, take notes, and collect photo media using Pinterest or the Pinterest app.
Divide the class into groups of three students. Explain that they are going to work together to create a detailed environmental impact assessment for a given endangered location somewhere in the world.
Review Student Resource 4.4, Assignment: Environmental Impact Assessment. Walk students through the first two steps (selecting a destination and dividing up the work).
Then ask students to review Teacher Resource 4.5, Rubric: Environmental Impact Assessment. Give students a few minutes to read through it, and then ask each group to pick a criterion that they would like clarified. Answer all questions.
Identify the computers or research materials available to the students. Let them know they have this class period and the next one to do research on their section of the report and write their rough draft.
CLASS PERIOD 4
Group Work: Environmental Impact Assessment (Continued)
Students conduct further research and use it to make recommendations about how to improve the situation at their endangered site. Students work together to complete their environmental impact assessment.
Begin class by having students compare their notes, research, and images they found in their groups. Next, have students conduct any further research required and then write their section of the report. Have students compose the writing assignment in Microsoft Word, using Track Changes for revisions and comments in the writing process. Tell students that they will be receiving feedback in the next class period, so, if their draft is not complete, they should finish it for homework.
CLASS PERIOD 5
Peer Feedback: Environmental Impact Assessment
Students benefit from receiving constructive peer feedback on their in-progress reports.
Convene students in their project groups. Pair each group with another to offer feedback on their progress thus far. Tell students to look at each other’s work and provide constructive criticism by answering these prompts:
· These parts of your plan are clear and easy to understand….
· These parts of your plan are confusing….
· We’d like to see more of __________ in your plan.
As appropriate, give students examples of how to complete these prompts. Tell students that they will now have a chance to improve their work based on this feedback.
Group Work: Response to Peer Feedback
Once students have given each other feedback, tell groups to reconvene and decide what they need to do to respond to the feedback. You may need to model what this means as well. Instruct students to divide up the remaining work. Whatever they can’t complete in class, they will need to finish for homework. In the next class period, they need to put the pieces together, write the conclusion, and compile the bibliography.
CLASS PERIOD 6
Group Work: Environmental Impact Assessment (Continued)
Students compile the final draft of their environmental impact report.
Allow students approximately 20 minutes to put their assignment together. Students may email the files to each other or use a portable hard drive or other method to transfer the files onto one computer so they can be combined. Images can be printed out and added to the end of the report.
Presentation: Environmental Impact Assessment
Students share the results of their research with their classmates. This activity focuses on the following college and career skills:
· Demonstrating the ability to speak effectively
· Demonstrating the ability to listen effectively
Once all reports are put together, tell students that they will be sharing their report with other groups.
Assign each group to another group (preferably one that worked on a different location and did not provide feedback in the previous class period). Each group should share the highlights of its report with the other group, including showing and explaining any pictures or images.
Tell the group that is listening to the presentation to think about the following prompts:
· The most interesting new fact I learned about this location is….
· What I liked best about this presentation is….
Once the first group has presented and heard the responses to these prompts, tell the groups to switch roles.
When all the groups have shared, collect the reports and assess them using Teacher Resource 4.5, Rubric: Environmental Impact Assessment.
Reflection: Tourism and the Environment
Tell students that this lesson gave them an overview of an aspect of hospitality and tourism that is very exciting because it is changing the entire industry and has the capacity to affect the planet in a positive way. Ask them to think about the following prompt:
· In what ways has this lesson changed my perspective on tourism’s environmental impact? If it hasn’t changed, why not?
After a minute, ask students to share their thoughts with a neighbor. Ask for student volunteers to share their responses with the class. Note that tourism’s environmental impact is linked in many ways to its economic impact. In the next lesson, students will learn why.
Scaffolding and Differentiation
- Reinforcement: This lesson plan was developed with various student learning styles in mind. I can see how you scaffolded the lessons and utilized many of the resources that were built right into the curriculum.
- Refinement: In this lesson, if it were presented to another educator to teach, I am not sure they would be able to readily identify the differentiation pieces to this lesson and how to apply it within the lesson. While the scaffolding does address many of the things to keep the lesson moving forward for the students, it is important that we allow for differentiated instruction for those students who might need it.
- Strategy- Research tells us that utilizing technology to provide resources within our lessons will give differentiation with a lesson to any student in need of those resources without singling them out for needing it. It appears that this curriculum has some online resources that could address this differentiated strategy that we would like to see in all of our lessons. (2015). Janssen and Lazonder
Alignment and Materials
- Reinforcement- Your objectives in this lesson are strong and align to the lesson
- Refinement- Considering that you utilize all the resources offered for this unit and it appears that they are being used in the most effective way, I see no need for refinement in this area.
- Strategy- the strategies for alignment to the objectives appear to have come directly from the online curriculum and they align to the content for this lesson.
- Reinforcement- the learning strategies used in this lesson appear to carryover the lesson from one class period to another with the intent to build on the lesson. This appears to be a very good strategy for applying various instructional skills as well.
- Refinement- The curriculum is designed to reach multiple school districts, but I notice that many times the lesson refers to the parts of the assignment that aren’t finished during class as something to do for homework. I would like to see you redefine what this would mean in your classroom because our district does not allow us to enforce homework. How might we reword this to encourage students to complete unfinished classwork outside of class time?
- Strategy- I would propose using the unfinished segments of each day as an exit or do now to reintroduce the lesson for the next day or to do a check for understanding.
- Reinforcement- It appears that this lesson is centered around the use of technology, given that one of the school’s CIP goals is to incorporate technology across all content areas, I want to thank you for choosing lessons from the curriculum that represent that technology piece for students to use.
- Refinement- I think that it is essential for all staff to be prepared to utilize their technology for displaying content in the classroom for those students who may have forgotten their computer for the day. It appears that you have the option to use flip charts for writing out the content and that is an excellent alternative to technology.
- Strategy- I wouldn’t have any strategy tips at this time for you regarding this lesson.
- Reinforcement- For the formal and informal assessments it sounds like the lesson plan requires you to do some extensive planning and printing of resources for students to have on hand in addition to them having access to computers.
- Refinement- for the formal assessments, I wouldn’t rely on students to bring in their own technology, instead plan to use the computer lab next to your classroom for all formal and informal assessments that require the use of technology that ensures full participation for all students
- Strategy- reserve the computer lab when you are doing your advance planning for all formal and informal assessments for this unit and all future units.
Alber, R. (2011). Edutopia. 6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use With Your Students https://www.edutopia.org/blog/scaffolding-lessons-six-strategies-rebecca-alber
Clement, M.C. (2016). Four-Step Lesson Intervention https://web-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=6b8b1196-964c-4e61-beee-809dca2515d0%40redis
Janssen, N. and Lazonder, A. (2015). Implementing Innovative Technologies Through Lesson Plans: What Kind of Support Do Teachers Prefer? https://eds-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=efc892b1-cf8a-486e-b849-c1c65e96fdc2%40redis
Racines, D. (2019). Edutopia. 4 Tips for Instructional Coaches https://www.edutopia.org/article/4-tips-instructional-coaches